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Female students in Tanzania face gender stereotypes which often manifest themselves in sexual abuse, early pregnancies, early marriages, household duties, limited access to schools, long distances to schools, and lack of priority for consideration of higher education, specifically for the poor families, thus influencing the higher drop out rates of the female students. Though identified in the Government Report, it does not offer any plans to solve the identified problems.With regard to sex discrimination in education it has been noted that there are no specific mechanisms or measures which are in place to deal with the problem. Such a situation is encouraging the continuation of sex discrimination in education. The Tanzanian government needs specific plans for large-scale reform that is necessary to increase the enrollment and retention of female students at all levels, specifically, the government needs to address the traditional cultural and community norms which discriminate against females and to adopt specific mechanisms or measures which are aimed at combating sex discrimination in education.

The quality of education is not being properly addressed in Tanzania. There are inadequate educational facilities, infrastructure and resources (both human and financial resources) but the Government Report makes no mention of the quality of the education that is being provided to students or whether the students are going to be successful participants in Tanzania's developing society.

Tanzanian teachers face numerous hurdles in providing quality education to their students including lack of support – low salary scales, housing scheme, adequate teaching facilities and materials; and training – gender sensitivity training, and scholastic aptitude training.

Implementation of PEDP has resulted in the sharp increase in standard one enrolment in the country and a shortfall of teachers. In order to meet the demand for teachers the government decided to reduce the time that trainee teachers spend at teacher’s colleges from two years to one. In practice, the programme operates on an ad hoc basis; there is no organized, sustained effort to further teacher’s professional development.

Many teachers are complaining that changes are made in syllabi, with new topics and textbooks introduced, without building the capacity of teachers to teach these subjects.

Large class size and the lack of teaching and learning materials make teaching stressful for many teachers.

11 of 56The government needs to identify educational reform goals which take into account the value and quality of education the students are receiving, in addition to increased enrollment. The government needs to put in place standards to monitor the progress of its educational reforms.

The increased enrollment of both boys and girls has to go hand-in-hand with the recruitment of more qualified teachers with better salaries, housing schemes and availability of incentives for the teachers. In-service training programmes for the teachers have to be expanded to enhance the knowledge and skills of teachers to cope with the changes that are taking place in the education sector. In addition, the government must enact standards to evaluate the teaching skills of the new and current teachers to ensure that the education methods being used are effective.

The Government Report does not provide enough concrete details about the efforts it has undertaken to improve physical school infrastructure or provide instructional materials to schools, teachers and students.The distance from home to schools is still very far and as a result children have to walk long distances to school. In such circumstances girls and disabled children are the most affected groups. This is contributing to high drop out rate of girls. The availability of textbooks is still a major problem despite efforts made under the PEDP to provide textbooks to schools; the pupil to book ratio still stands at 1:5 for most school subjects.

Despite the Tanzanian government's efforts to reform the educational system, yet girls dropout rate is higher than that of boys due to early marriages, pregnancies, truancy, involvement in domestic chores and taking care of the sick children, which consume most of their time,” However, no solution to these problems has been offered in the government report.In addition, there are no plans regarding what strategies, if any, are being used to support female students' return to school once they have dropped out.The government needs to adopt specific plans and strategies to prevent female students from dropping out of school and to assist female students' return to school once they have dropped out.

The Government Report offers little discussion of disparities between the rural and urban populations on education and the efforts to reduce these disparities. In some schools, especially those in rural areas, children are sitting down on the floor in a class because there are no or inadequate desks to sit on. The proportion of children enrolled in primary schools varied between rural and urban areas. According to House hold Budget Survey 2000/2001, urban areas enrollment was 71% for boys and 71.3% for girls while in rural areas the enrollment was as low as 47.1% and 51.7% for boys and girls respectively in 2001. The Tanzanian government needs to implement strategies that will reduce the disparities between the literacy rates and educational opportunities between the rural and urban populations, specifically with respect to the disparities between the situations of rural and urban female populations.

There is limited understanding of disability and children with special needs in Government planning and programmes. Similarly there are inadequate plans within the primary school development plan to work with children who have special learning and behavioural needs. There is no mention of plans within the educational development plan to work with or accommodate children who have special physical, learning and/or behavioural needs. Given that significant number of children who suffer from physical or mental disabilities, the government needs to create specific plans to sensitize the population and address the needs of disabled children.

Though a guarantee of access to education is made to refugees and displaced persons in the Tanzanian National Education Act 1978, refugees face additional challenges to receiving basic education, including the fact that the law in Tanzania hinders the right to movement of refugees, which is an essential human right and impacts all aspects of refugees’ lives, including the full access to educational facilities. Schools have been constructed in their respective camps. However such schools are inadequate with lack of adequate facilities/supplies. Opportunities for secondary education, tertiary education and vocational skills training programmes are extremely limited. The government needs to evaluate its current status of compliance with the Tanzanian National Education Act in providing education to refugees and displaced persons and it needs to create plans to improve the access to educational services.

Article 11: Employment As far as employment is concern, there are still numerous national laws in effect which directly or indirectly provide a legal basis for discrimination between male and female employees. For examples the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) Act Cap. 47 R.E 2002 which provides inter alia for a Survivor's pension. Specifically, Section 35(a) of the NSSF Act provides that a widow who has the responsibility to care for the dependent children will be paid a pension for life, or until she remarries. On the contrary, Section 35(b) discriminates against women who do not have to care for dependent children.Sexual harassment also continues to be a serious problem for female

June 3, 2015
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Comments (1)

let us together me and you promote and protect this young generation
June 3, 2015

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